LESSON PLAN DESIGN

H. Jurgen Combs

INPUT AND MODELING - this outlines the steps that you will follow in teaching your lesson and will be the most detailed section of your lesson plan. The input refers to the instruction that you provide to help the students understand the objectives while the modeling refers to the examples that you provide. It is important to provide a variety of samples (generalization); it is also good to provide non-examples (importance of discrimination). It is important that you consider varying learning styles, vary your teaching style, use a variety of materials, monitor your students closely and adjust your instruction as needed. During the presentation of your lesson, be conscious of the need to ask higher level questions; a good guide is Bloom’s taxonomy.

 

In the lesson, you will

  • explain why the sts are learning the material (say)
  • modeling the learning by providing sufficient examples so students understand (see)
  • Provide structured practice in the next section - guided practice (do)

When you teach the lesson, keep the following in mind:

  • teach to one objective at a time
  • adjust as needed

Monitor and adjust - is student progress toward the intended learning outcomes being monitored? A re adjustments being made in instruction, if needed, based on student needs?

Input - what information must the student have in the lesson so that s/he may reach the objective? The teacher needs to determine how the student is going to get this information or what the mans of instruction will be. It is important that the teacher determine what new information is needed by the learner.

Modeling - when the student sees an example(s) of acceptable finished product or of what the new learning looks like. The teacher needs to focus on the essentials and label the critical elements

Check for Understanding (CFU) - when the teacher checks for student's possession of essential information and the skills necessary to achieve the instructional objective. This can be done by the teacher observing the student performing the new skill, asking specific questions to determine student understanding. Look for bits and pieces and small segments of the whole. If you see that students are not "getting it", plan to re-teach before moving on.

What information must the student have in the lesson so that s/he may reach the objective? The teacher needs to determine how the student is going to get this information or what the means of instruction will be. It is important that the teacher determine what new information is needed by the learner.

Modeling is when the student sees an example(s) of an acceptable finished product or of what the new learning looks like. The teacher needs to focus on the essentials and label the critical elements.

What to look for in a well organized lesson *

  1. specific objectives
  2. reviews and previews
  3. task orientation - subject matter at hand is major focus of discussion
  4. signals transitions
  5. emphasizes important aspects - structured comments

* Berliner, Dave, et. al. Instructor's Manual for Lesson Organization. National Resource and Dissemination Center. University of South Florida, FAO 268, Tampa, FL 33620. Ca. 1972, p. 9.

What to look for in models of teaching *

THE TEACHER AS

  1. lecturer
  2. expert resource person
  3. facilitator
  4. counselor
  5. leader of group meetings
  6. tutor
  7. manager of media instruction
  8. laboratory supervisor
  9. programmer
  10. manipulator of learning environment

Joyce, B. and M. Weil in Supervision for Today's School. Peter F. Oliva Thomas Y. Cromwell Co., 1976, pp. 325-326.

What do look for - variables shown to provide a promising relationship between teacher behavior and pupil gain. *

  1. Clarity - cognitive clarity of teacher's presentation
  2. Variability - teacher uses a variety in lesson presentation
  3. Enthusiasm - teacher uses vigor, power, involvement, and interest in lesson presentation
  4. Task-orientation or businesslike behavior - teacher is task-oriented achievement oriented and business like.
  5. Student is given opportunity to learn criterion material; teacher provides for relationship between material and criterion of pupil performance
  6. Use of student ideas and general indirectness - acknowledging modifying, applying, comparing, and summarizing students' statements
  7. Criticism - criticizing or controlling the pupil, the extend to which the teacher shows hostility, strong disapproval or a need to justify authority.
  8. Use of structuring comments - the extend to which the teacher uses statements designed to provide an overview of, or cognitive scaffolding for completed or planned lessons.
  9. Type of questions asked - usually categorized as "lower cognitive" or "higher cognitive".
  10. Probing - teacher responses that encourage the student (or another student) to elaborate upon his or her answer.
  11. Level of difficulty of instruction - student perceptions of the difficulty of the instruction.

* Rosenshine, B. and N. Furst in The Appraisal of Teaching: Concepts and Process. Gary Borich, Ed., Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1977, pp. 71-72

Monitor and adjust - is student progress toward the intended learning outcomes being monitored? A re adjustments being made in instruction, if needed, based on student needs?

  1. Observe learner behavior and make necessary changes in teaching order to increase the probability of learning
  2. The Monitor and Adjust process is continuous throughout the lesson
  3. Steps in Monitor and Adjust
    • generate over behavior

Please link to a PowerPoint program which details more specifics on effective lesson presentations.

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jcombs@removethisphrasesu.edu
last updated on 27 May 2008
H. Jurgen Combs